All Publications


  • Sako, M. (2006) Shifting Boundaries of the Firm: Japanese Company – Japanese Labour, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Paperback edition 2008) (A symposium on the book in the journal Labour History)
  • Crouch, C., Finegold, D. and Sako, M. (1999) Are Skills the Answer? Oxford: Oxford University Press (paperback published 2001).
  • Dore, R. P. and Sako, M. (1998) How the Japanese Learn to Work, a substantially revised Second Edition, London: Routledge (with Italian translation).
  • Sako, M. and Sato, H. (1997) Japanese Labour and Management in Transition: Diversity, Flexibility and Participation, London: Routledge.
  • Sako, M. (1990) Prices, Quality and Trust: Inter-firm Relations in Britain and Japan, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Paperback edition 2007) (Reviewed in Economic Journal (1993), Journal of International Business Studies (1994), Journal of Economic Literature (1994), Journal of Management Studies (1994), and Industrial Relations Journal (1993))
  • Dore, R. P. and Sako, M. (1989) How the Japanese Learn to Work, London: Routledge.

Journal Articles

Articles in Refereed Journals

  • Sako, M. (2019) ‘Free trade in a digital world’, Communications of the ACM, 62(4) pp.18-21.
  • Sako, M. (2018) ‘Business ecosystems: how do they matter for innovation?’, Communications of the ACM, 61(4) pp.20-22.
  • Sako, M. and Zylberberg, E. (2017) ‘Supplier Strategy to Shape Governance and Profit from Upgrading: A Management Studies Approach to Global Value Chains‘, Socio-Economic Review,
  • Sako, M., Chondrakis, G. and Vaaler, P. (2016) ‘How do plural-sourcing firms make and buy? Impact of supplier portfolio design,’ Organization Science, 27(5): 1161-1182.
  • Sako, M. (2016) ‘The need for corporate diplomacy’, Communications of the ACM, 59(4) pp.33-35.
  • Sako, M. (2015) ‘Competing in emerging markets’ Communications of the ACM, 58(4) pp.27-29.
  • Sako, M. (2014) ‘The business of the state’ Communications of the ACM, 57(7) pp.28-30.
  • Sako, M. (2013) 'Professionals between market and hierarchy: a comparative political economy perspective' Socio-Economic Review, 11 (1) pp. 185-212.
  • Sako, M. (2013) 'The business of professionals' Communications of the ACM, 56 (7) pp. 30-34.
  • Desyllas, P. and Sako, M. (2013) 'Profiting from business model innovation: Evidence from Pay-As-You-Drive auto insurance' Research Policy, 42 (1) pp. 101-116.
  • Sako, M. (2012) Business models in strategy and innovation. Communications of the ACM, 55(7): 22-24.
  • Sako, Mari (2011) Driving power in global supply chains. Communications of the ACM, 54 (7). pp. 23-25.
  • Gospel, H. and Sako, M. (2010) 'The Unbundling of Corporate Functions: the Evolution of Shared Services and Outsourcing in Human Resource Management' Industrial and Corporate Change, 19 (5) pp. 1367-1396.
  • Helper, S. and Sako, M. (2010) 'Management Innovation in Supply Chain: Appreciating Chandler in the Twenty-First Century' Industrial and Corporate Change, 19 (2) pp. 399-429.
  • Sako, M. (2010) ‘Outsourcing versus Shared Services,’ Communications of the ACM, 53(7), July, pp.27-29.
  • Sako, M. (2009) ‘Globalization of Knowledge-Intensive Professional Services’, Communications of the ACM, 52 (7), July, pp.31-33.
  • Sako, M. (2008) ‘Do Industries Matter?’ Labour Economics, Vol.15 No.4, pp.674-687.
  • Sako, M. (2006) ‘Outsourcing and Offshoring: Implications for Productivity of Business Services’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Vol.22 No.4, pp.499-512.
  • Sako, M. and Jackson, M. (2006) ‘Strategy Meets Institutional Analysis: The Transformation of Labour-Management Relations at Deutsche Telekom and NTT’, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol.31 (April), pp.347-366.
  • Sako, M. (2005) ‘Does Embeddedness Imply Limits to Within-Country Diversity?’ British Journal of Industrial Relations, 43(4), pp.585-592.
  • Sako, M. (2004) ‘Supplier development at Honda, Nissan and Toyota: comparative case studies of organizational capability enhancement’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 13(2), pp.281-308.
  • Sako, M. (1999) ‘From Individual Skills to Organizational Capability in Japan’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy Vol.15 No.1, pp.114-126.
  • Sako, M. (1998) ‘The nature and impact of employee ‘voice’ in the European car components industry’, Human Resource Management Journal Vol.8 No.2, pp.5-13.
  • Sako, M. and Helper, S. (1998) Determinants of Trust in Supplier Relations: Evidence from the Automotive Industry in Japan and the United States (with Susan R. Helper) Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization Vol. 34, pp.387-417.
  • Sako, M. (1996) ‘Suppliers Associations in the Japanese Auto Industry: Collective Action for Technology Diffusion?’ Cambridge Journal of Economics Vol. 20 No.6, pp.651-671.
  • Sako, M., Lamming, R. and Helper, S. (1995) ‘Supplier Relations in the UK Car Industry: Good News and Bad News’ (with R. Lamming and S. Helper) in European Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Vol.1 No.4, pp.237-248. (reprinted in Ram Mudambi and Martin Ricketts (eds) The Organisation of the Firm: International Business Perspectives London: Routledge, 1998).
  • Helper, S. R. and Sako, M. (1995) ‘Supplier Relations in Japan and the United States: Are They Converging? Sloan Management Review, Vol.35 No.3, pp.77-84.
  • Sako, M. (1991) ‘Institutional Aspects of Youth Employment and Training Policy: a Comment on Marsden and Ryan’, British Journal of Industrial Relations, September 1991, pp.485-90.
  • Sako, M. (1991) ‘The Role of Trust in Japanese Buyer-Supplier Relationships’, Ricerche Economiche (now Research in Economics) April-September, pp.449-474.
  • Dore, R. and Sako, M. (1988) ‘Teaching and Testing: the Role of the State in Japan’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Vol.4 No.3, pp.72-81.

Articles in Non-refereed Journals

  • Sako, M. (2006) ‘Administrando Parques Industrias de Autopecas no Brasil: uma comparacao entre Resende, Gravatai e Camacari’ (Governing Automotive Supplier Parks in Brazil: A Comparison of Resende, Gravatai and Camacari) Carderno CRH, Vol.10 No.46, pp.61-73. ISSN 0103 – 4979.
  • Sako, M. (1995) ‘Achieving Complementarities of Size Advantages in New Product Development: the Case of Multimedia in Japan (with Mark Dodgson and Jonathan Sapsed) International Journal of Technology Management, pp.183-205.
  • Sako, M. (1993) ‘Sapuraiya kankei ni okeru shinrai no yakuwari (the role of trust in supplier relations) (in Japanese)’ in Chusho Kigyo Kiho (Journal of Small and Medium sized Enterprises) April, pp.1-9.
  • Sako, M. (1993) ‘Balancing cooperation and competition: a comparative study of the printed circuit board industry in Britain and Japan’, International Journal of Technology Management November, pp 200-222.
  • Sako, M. (1993) Training Practices in Japanese, British and German Firms, in Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Economiche e Commerciali Vol 40, December pp 1041-1064.
  • Dore, R. and Sako, M. (1986) ‘How the Youth Training Scheme Helps Employers’, Employment Gazett, June, pp.195-204.

Other Reports and Briefing Notes (recent only)

  • Sako, M. (2018) Changing Role of General Counsel in Germany, a report.
  • Sako, M. (2011) General Counsel with Power? (with Afterword by Richard Susskind), Novak Druce Centre working paper.
  • Sako, M. (2005) Outsourcing and Offshoring: Key Trends and Issues, background paper prepared for the Emerging Markets Forum, Templeton College, Oxford.
  • Sako, M. and Tierney, A. (2005) Sustainability of Business Services Outsourcing: the Case of Human Resource Outsourcing (HRO), ESRC-EPSRC AIM Working Paper.
  • Sako, M. and Judith kleine Holthaus (2005) Teaching International Business: A Survey of Full-time MBA Courses in Europe (with Judith kleine Holthaus), report prepared for the Said Foundation.
  • Sako, M. and Albert Cho (2004) Teaching International Business: A Survey of Full-time MBA Courses, report prepared for the Said Foundation.
  • Abramovsky, L., Griffith, R. and Sako, M. (2004) Offshoring of Business Services and its Impact on the UK Economy (co-authored with Laura Abramovsky and Rachel Griffith), AIM Briefing Note, London.
  • Griffith, R., Harrison, R., Haskel, J. and Sako, M. (2003) The UK Productivity Gap and the Importance of Service Sector (co-authored with Rachel Griffith, Rupert. Harrison, and Jonathan Haskel), AIM Briefing Note, London.

Submitted Work and Working Papers (work-in-progress)

  • Sako, M. and Kubo, K. (2019) Professionals on Company Boards: How do They Affect the Bottom Line? Draft paper.
  • Chondrakis, G. and Sako, M. (2019) Plural Sourcing, Supplier Portfolio Design, and Employee Mobility.

Teaching Cases

  • Evalueserve: Globalizing the Business of Giving Insight? (2009)
  • Clifford Chance Knowledge Centre in India (2010) (with Mark Ford)
  • Reputational Challenges of Outsourcing Public Services: Manus Island Immigration Detention Centre (2015)

Book chapters

  • Sako, M. (2019) ‘The changing role of General Counsel’ in M. DeStefano and G. Dobrauz-Saldapenna (eds.) New Suits: Appetite for Disruption in the Legal World, Stämpfli, forthcoming.
  • Sako, M. and Zylberberg, E. (2018) ‘Firm-level strategy and global value chains’ in Gereffi, G. et al (eds.) Handbook of Global Value Chains, Edward Elgar, forthcoming.
  • Kotosaka, M. and Sako, M. (2018) ‘The evolution of the ICT eco-system in Japan: from corporate logic to venture logic?’ in Nakano, T. et al (eds) Japanese Management in Evolution: New Directions, Breaks, and Emerging Practices, London: Routledge.
  • Sako, M. (2016) ‘Globalization and the Changing Role of General Counsel’ in Kai Jacob, Dierk Schindler, ad Roger Strathausen (eds.) Liquid Legal: Running Legal as Business, Springer.
  • Sako, M. and Chondrakis, G. (2016) ‘Dynamic Capabilities: Implications for Firm Boundaries’ in Teece, D., & Leih, S. (Eds.), Oxford Handbook on Dynamic Capabilities, Oxford University Press.
  • Sako, M. (2016) ‘Professional Skills: Impact of Comparative Political Economy’ in Finegold, D. et al (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Skills and Training, Oxford University Press.
  • Sako, M. (2015) ‘Outsourcing and Offshoring by Professional Services Firms’ in Laura Empson et al (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Professional Services Firms, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Sako, M. and Kotosaka, M. (2012) Continuity and Change in the Japanese Economy: Evidence of Institutional Interactions in Financial and Labour Markets. In: Walter, Andrew and Zhang , Xiaoke, (eds.) East Asian Capitalism: Diversity, Continuity and Change. Oxford University Press.
  • Sako, M. (2009) ‘Outsourcing of Tasks and Outsourcing of Assets: Evidence from Automotive Supplier Parks in Brazil’, chapter in Annabelle Gawer (ed.) Platforms, Markets, and Innovation, Edward Elgar.
  • Sako, M (2007) ‘Organizational Diversity and Institutional Change: Evidence from Financial and Labour Markets in Japan’, chapter in Masahiko Aoki, Gregory Jackson and Hideaki Miyajima (eds) Corporate Governance in Japan: Organizational Diversity and Institutional Change, Oxford University Press.
  • Sako, M. (2006) Japanese Industrial Relations System in the Twenty-First Century: Diversity, Flexibility, and Participation (in Japanese), chapter in T. Fujimoto et al (eds.) Japanese Enterprise System, Tokyo: Yuhikaku.
  • Griffith, R., Haskell, J. and Sako (2006), M. (National Institutions and UK Competitiveness, a chapter for a book, The Exceptional Manager, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Sako, M. (2004) ‘Governing Supplier Parks: Implications for Firm Boundaries and Clusters’, in Dumez, Hervé (ed.) Gouverner les organisations. Paris: l'Harmattan.
  • Sako, M. (2003) ‘Modularity and Outsourcing: The Nature of Co-evolution of Product Architecture and Organizational Architecture in the Global Automotive Industry’, in Andrea Prencipe, Andrew Davis and Mike Hobday (eds.) The Business of Systems Integration Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Translated into Portuguese for a volume, Jose Ferro Camacho et al (eds.) A Industria Automovel Portuguesa: Explorar o Desafio dos Auto Interiores, Lisbon: CEIIA/Inteli)
  • Sako, M. (2003) ‘Between Bit Valley and Silicon Valley: Hybrid Modes of Business Governance in the Japanese Internet Economy’, in Bruce Kogut (ed.) The Global Internet Economy, MIT Press.
  • Sako, M. (2001) ‘Automobile Industry’, an entry in William Lazonick (ed.) the IEBM Handbook of Economics.
  • Sako, M. (2000) ‘A Modular World of Business: What Kind of Trust Do We Need?’ (in Japanese) In Osaka City University (ed.) Niju-isseiki Sisutemu to Nihon Kigyo (Twenty-first Century System and the Japanese Firm), Tokyo: Nikkei, 2000
  • Helper, S. and Sako, M. (1999) ‘Supplier Relations and Performance in Europe, Japan and the US: The Effect of the Voice/Exit Choice ‘ in J.J. Chanaron, T. Fujimoto and Y. Lung (eds.) Coping with Variety: Product Variety and Productive Organizations in the World Automotive Industry, Aldershot: Ashgate
  • Sako M. (1998) ‘The Informational Requirements of Trust in Supplier Relations: Evidence from Japan, Europe and the United States’, in N. Lazaric and E. Lorenz (eds.) The Economics of Trust and Learning Edward Elgar.
  • Sako, M. (1998) ‘Does Trust Improve Business Performance?’ in C. Lane and R. Backmann (eds) Trust in and between Organisations, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Paperback first published in 2000)
  • Sako, M. (1997) ‘The Role of Trust in Japanese Supplier Relations’ (in Japanese) in Fujimoto, T., Nishiguchi, T. and Ito, H. (eds.) Supplier System Tokyo: Yuhikaku.
  • Sako, M. (1997) ‘Shunto: Employer and Union Coordination for Pay Determination at the Industry and Inter-Sectoral Levels’, in M. Sako and H. Sato (eds.) Japanese Labour and Management in Transition: Diversity, Flexibility and Participation London: Routledge.
  • Sako, M. (1994) ‘The Role of Employers and Unions in Facilitating Transition to Employment and Further Learning’, in US Department of Education and OECD (eds) Vocational Education and Training for Youth: Towards Coherent Policy and Practice, Paris: OECD.
  • Sako, M. (1994) ‘Supplier Relationships and Innovation’ in Mark Dodgson and Roy Rothwell (eds.) Handbook of Industrial Innovation, Edward Elgar, pp.268-274.
  • Sako, M. (1994) ‘Neither Markets Nor Hierarchies: A Comparative Study of the Printed Circuit Board Industry’ in J. Rogers Hollingsworth, Philippe C. Schmitter and Wolfgang Streeck (eds.) Governing Capitalist Economies, Oxford University Press.
  • Sako, M. (1994) ‘Japan: Vocational Education and Training’, in International Encyclopedia of Education , Pergamon Press, second edition.
  • Sako, M. (1994) ‘Training, Productivity and Quality Control in Japanese Multinational Companies’ in M Aoki and R Dore (eds.) The Japanese Firm: Sources of Competitive Strength, Oxford University Press. (Also available in Japanese translation, published by NTT Press)
  • Sako, M. (1992) ‘La cooperazione competitiva: il sistema giapponese e lo sviluppo delle relazioni inter-impresa’ in F. Belussi (ed.) Nuovi Modelli d Impressa Gerarchie Organizzative e Imprese Rete Milano: Franco Angeli.
  • Sako, M. (1990) ‘Japan: Vocational Education and Training’, International Encyclopedia of Education, Supplementary Volume 2, Pergamon Press, pp.331-337.


  • Hiroshi Hazama The History of Labour Management in Japan, (from Japanese into English), Classics in the History and Development of Economics, London: Macmillan Press, 1997, 222pp, with a review essay style Forward ‘Professor Hiroshi Hazama on the Firm as a Family’.